GPs and health visitors often ask our hospital paediatricians about common paediatric conditions and symptoms.

Common paediatric questions

To better support primary care and community care health professionals, we have provided links below to useful information for some of these conditions.

Normal lower limb variants in children
This clinical review provides a quick reference guide on common lower limb abnormalities, including in- and out-turned toes, knock knees, bow legs and flat feet.

Primary care specialist infant formulae prescribing guidance
Our local community dieticians have produced guidelines for infant formulae prescribing.
Page four provides information on milk allergy in infants, and page 12 provides information on thickening formulae (like Enfamil AR) for babies with reflux.

Plagiocephaly and brachycephaly (flat head syndrome)
In most cases flat head syndrome is not a major cause for concern. It doesn’t have an effect on the brain and the head shape will often improve by itself over time.

Umbilical hernia
Umbilical hernia, which is common but causes no problems, needs to be distinguished from paraumbilical hernia, which is unusual but can cause problems.

Phimosis in childhood
This paper gives information on when to be concerned by phimosis. Almost all boys have a non-retractile foreskin at birth, until at least aged two. Foreskin adhesions break down spontaneously. Most have a retractile foreskin by aged 10, 95% by aged 16. The foreskin and meatus appear healthy. Don’t be concerned by smegma (shed skin/secretions trapped under foreskin, ‘pearls’ or ballooning during micturition). This physiological phimosis does not require intervention/manipulation.